Apple's mobile OS that runs on the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch devices. Formerly known as the iPhone OS.

iOS frameworks

CoreData (DB in iOS), Cocoa, Cocoa Touch, UIKit, CoreLocation, CoreFoundation, CoreImage, CoreGraphics.

iOS programming languages

Objective-C, Swift.


A Software Development Kit that allows to develop mobile apps on Apple's iOS. Previously known as iPhone SDK. 

iOS tools

CocoaPods (dependency manager), Flurry (for analytics), TestFlight (for installation and testing iOS apps), HockeyApp (platform for apps).

iOS 10 Speech Recognition API

Allows to perform rapid and contextually informed speech recognition in both file-based and realtime scenarios.

3D Touch

Introduced in iOS 9. ​Senses how deeply users press the display, letting do the things they do most often, faster and in fewer steps as well as preview all kinds of content and even act on it without having to actually open it.

Accelerate framework

A set of high-performance numerical libraries provided by Apple for iOS and OS X. It provides APIs for signal and image processing, linear algebra, and mathematical operations on vector data. 


An open-source networking library for iOS and Mac OS X, the latest version (AFNetworking 3.0) is built on top of the NSURLSession based APIs and takes its great features. 


An HTTP networking library for iOS, Mac OS X & watchOS written in Swift


Stands for Apple Push Notification service. A service that allows third party application developers to send notification data to applications installed on Apple devices.


An IDE used for developing iOS/macOS apps. AppCode contains a set of features required for work with Objective-C, Swift, C, and C++ languages.

Auto Layout

A constraint-based layout system, allowing developers to create an adaptive UI that can be used for multiple orientations and multiple devices. 

Automatic Reference Counting

A memory-management implementation for the Objective-C and Swift used to track and manage iOS app’s memory usage.


A full featured framework that provides an Objective-C interface to play and create time-based audiovisual media on iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS.


A simple dependency manager for iOS; written in Swift.

Clean Architecture (VIPER)

Divides an app's logical structure into distinct layers of responsibility, thereby making it easier to isolate dependencies (e.g. your database) and test the interactions at the boundaries between layers. VIPER is an application of Clean Architecture to iOS apps.


An Apple's object-oriented API for macOS, cocoa apps are developed using specifically Xcode, it consists of the Foundation Kit, Application Kit, and Core Data frameworks, etc.

Cocoa Touch

A user interface framework provided by Apple for building software applications on iOS, main features are: Core Animation; Core Audio; Core Data. It is primarily written in Objective-C language. 


An application level dependency manager for the Objective-C, Swift projects, provides a standard format for managing external libraries. 

Core Bluetooth

An Apple framework, provides classes for Bluetooth communication, access to Bluetooth low energy devices. 

Core Data

A persistence framework provided by Apple in the macOS and iOS operating systems, provides an object graph management. 

Core Graphics

An Apple vector drawing framework in macOS and iOS, provides 2D drawing, path-based drawing, color management, offscreen rendering, display, parsing etc.

Core Location

An iOS framework that provides services used to get and monitor the current location data, allows determining a device’s geographic location, altitude, orientation.


A cross-platform C-based API that provides reference-counted data structures, also provides some crucial Objective-C classes, allow to customize how memory is managed and objects are identified. 

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