General Terms


Stands for Natural Language Processing. A field of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence which studies ways for computers to analyze, understand human language and derive meaning from it, especially the programming aspect of it. The goal of NLP is to facilitate computer-human interactions.


Stands for Network Time Protocol. A networking protocol for clock synchronization within computer systems and data networks. NTP synchronizes the devices with UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) using a modified Marzullo’s algorithm.


Stands for Online Analytical Processing. OLAP is a technology used in Business Intelligence (BI) applications, which allows complex calculations, data modeling, trend analysis, and other manipulations of business data. Implementations of the technology include dynamic reporting, medical institution activities, forecasting solutions, etc.

Online Marketplace

A type of e-commerce website. A platform for multiple third parties to offer products or services. The marketplace facilitates communication between customers and vendors/services, and transactions are processed by the marketplace operator.

Open Source

A software development model, that is decentralized and encourages open collaboration. Any program whose source code is freely available to the public. Unlike commercial software, they can be used and modified by anyone and are often developed as a community rather than by a single organization.


Short for Open Graphics Library. A cross-language, cross-platform API  for developing 2D and 3D graphics applications. It is used in CAD, video games, virtual reality and other visualisations. The software also offers a set of functions for special effects, rendering and texture mapping.


Stands for Object-Relational Mapping. A programming technique that allows to address, access and manipulate objects without having to consider how those objects relate to their data sources. Basically, the data can be converted between incompatible type systems (e.g., variables, functions).


Short for Online Travel Agency. ​Travel websites that provide online planning and booking facilities for hotels, airlines, cars and other travel related services to users.​ OTA type websites allow customers to make reservations and pay for them via standard online payment methods.


Stands for Open Web Application Security Project. An open community that provides free tools, documentation and other sources of improving application security. The community also offers support to companies in developing, maintaining and operating applications that can be trusted.


Software code in a compiler or interpreter, a special-purpose program, that performs a syntactic analysis of a string of symbols in a natural or computer language, based on formal rules. There are two types of parsers, top-down and bottom-up, depending on the element it starts the analysis with.


The process of analyzing strings of symbols in a natural or computer language (a piece of text or program code). In a natural language, the purpose is to identify parts of speech in a sentence and connections between them. In a source code - to identify code component to facilitate the work of a compiler or interpreter.


Stands for Product Lifecycle Management. A systematic approach in software development. It is used to manage the stages a product goes through, from its design and development to its ultimate retirement or disposal. It has four stages: conceive, design, realise and service.


A software component that is installed onto a program, giving it the authority to perform additional features. It makes other apps customizable (e.g., scanning for viruses, search, use a non-standard video player). Users can also personalize the look of an app.


Short for Point of Interest. ​Points on the map (GPS coordinates with descriptions) that you are interested in and want to store. Mobile users can also be provided with recommendations of relevant to POI places, based on geolocation data.


Stands for Point of Sale. A computerized terminal that is a replacement for a cash register. It has the ability to record and track customer orders, process credit and debit cards, connect to other systems in a network. POS can be physical (in stores, hotels, etc.) and online.

Product Roadmap

An overall view of the product's requirements, short-term and long-term goals. It is also a valuable tool for planning and organizing the journey of product development. Roadmapping can be referred to new or existing products and services.

Project planning

A part of project management that determines how to complete a project within a certain time frame. Usually it has defined stages and designated resources. It uses schedules to carry out the plan and subsequently report progress.


Proprietary Software

Type of intellectual property, owned by a company, an individual or a group of developers (usually the one that developed it). Usually, it has major use restrictions, and its source code is almost always kept secret. The owner retains patent or copyright.


Stands for Quantum Geographic Information System. A cross-platform (Windows, Mac, Linux, BSD) free GIS application for desktop use. It provides different tools for manipulating geospatial data, such as viewing, editing, and analysis.


Stands for Request for Proposal. A document to aid the procurement process, designed for bidding on potential vendors and a desired IT solution. It specifies what the customer is looking for and the evaluation criteria for assessing proposals, as well as background information about the organization behind the proposal.


A standardized file format that enables citation programs to exchange data. It is supported by a number of reference manager applications. A RIS file looks like a typical text file, but with references. The references consist of fields and tags.


Short for Research and Development. A business or government activity that with the right approach and incentive can lead to invention and innovation. R&D also works on improving existing products and projects. There are internal (in-house) and external R&D facilities.

Regular expression

A sequence of characters that define a search pattern, string of text that allows to create patterns that help match, locate, and manage text, can also be used in text editors to find text within a file. Regular expressions can be coded in Java, Perl, .NET, PHP and other languages.

Rendering Engine

An engine that is used by a web browser to render text and images, for example, HTML pages. It is primarily a part of a web browser, as it cannot be a standalone program. A rendering engine uses values to fill out the onscreen area with graphics.


Short for Rich Internet Application. An app that uses the web browser to run embedded scripts within web pages. Such apps have similarities with a desktop application, but are run via a browser plug-in, virtual machine or using JavaScript.

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