A mobile operating system for smartphones, electronic tablets, portable players and other devices. Developed and manufactured by the American company Apple exclusively for its own products. 

iOS frameworks

CoreData (DB in iOS), Cocoa, Cocoa Touch, UIKit, CoreLocation, CoreFoundation, CoreImage, CoreGraphics.

iOS programming languages

Objective-C, Swift.


A software development kit that helps developers create native applications for Apple's iOS devices and platforms. Combined with Xcode, the iOS SDK (formerly known as the iPhone SDK) allows to write iOS apps using officially-supported programming languages, including Swift and Objective-C.

iOS tools

CocoaPods (dependency manager), Flurry (for analytics), TestFlight (for installation and testing iOS apps), HockeyApp (platform for apps).

iOS 10 Speech Recognition API

A new Speech API that allows the app to support continuous speech recognition and transcribe speech (from live or recorded audio streams) into text. Introduced in iOS 10, the Speech framework performs speech recognition by communicating with Apple's servers or using an on-device speech recognizer, if available.

3D Touch

A pressure sensitive technology Apply introduced in iPhone 6s and 6s Plus devices running iOS 9. With 3D Touch, an iPhone app is now able to not only tell that the user is touching the device's screen, but it is able to sense how deeply users press the display, letting do the things they do most often, faster and in fewer steps as well as preview all kinds of content and even act on it without having to actually open it.

Accelerate framework

Available in both Swift and Objective-C, the Accelerate Framework is used to make large-scale mathematical and image calculations much easier for developers and optimized for high performance tasks. As a result it is used extensively in machine learning programs. The framework contains a variety of C APIs for vector and matrix math, digital signal processing, large number handling, and image processing.


A delightful networking library for iOS and Mac OS X. It is extending the powerful high-level networking abstractions built into Cocoa. It has a modular architecture with well-designed, feature-rich APIs that are a joy to use.


A Swift-based HTTP networking library for iOS and Mac OS X. It provides an elegant interface on top of Apple’s Foundation networking stack that simplifies a number of common networking tasks.


Apple Push Notification service (APNs) is the centerpiece of the remote notifications feature. It is a robust, secure, and highly efficient service for app developers to propagate information to iOS (and, indirectly, watchOS), tvOS, and macOS devices. The notification information sent can include badges, sounds, newsstand updates, or custom text alerts.


An IDE used for developing iOS/macOS apps. AppCode natively supports Objective-C, Swift, C and C++, as well as JavaScript, XML, HTML, CSS and XPath.

Auto Layout

A constraint-based layout system that allows developers to create an adaptive UI that responds appropriately to changes in screen size and device orientation. Auto Layout dynamically calculates the size and position of all the views in your view hierarchy. What’s more, it is compatible with many of Apple’s most exciting APIs, including animations, motion effects, and sprites.


Automatic Reference Counting, ARC for short, is a technology used to track and manage your app’s memory usage.


Apple’s AR development platform for iOS. Enables developers to build high-detail augmented-reality apps.


A full featured framework that provides an Objective-C interface to play and create time-based audiovisual media on iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS.


A binding framework for Swift. It is built on top of ReactiveKit. Provides AppKit and UIKit bindings, reactive delegates and datasources to ReactiveKit.


A ruthlessly simple dependency manager for macOS and iOS. It exclusively uses dynamic frameworks instead of static libraries – this is the only way to distribute Swift binaries that are supported by iOS 8 and up.

Clean Architecture (VIPER)

An application of Clean Architecture to iOS projects. Divides an app's logical structure into distinct layers of responsibility, thereby making it easier to isolate dependencies (e.g. your Database) and test the interactions at the boundaries between layers.


An Apple's object-oriented API for macOS. Cocoa apps are developed using specifically Xcode. It consists of the Foundation Kit, Application Kit, Core Data frameworks, etc.

Cocoa Touch

A user interface framework provided by Apple for building software applications on iOSmain features are: Core Animation; Core Audio; Core Data. It is primarily written in Objective-C language. 


An application level dependency manager for the cocoa projects Swift and Objective-C. There are more than ten thousand libraries that will help you in creating fast and elegant applications.

Core Animation

A graphics compositing framework used by macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. Used to animate the views and other visual elements of apps.

Core Bluetooth

A framework that provides the classes needed for your apps to communicate with devices that are equipped with Bluetooth Low Energy wireless technology. Bluetooth LE devices include heart rate monitors, digital thermostats, and more.

Core Data

A framework that is built into the operating system iOS, MacOS, which allows the developer to interact with the database. Allows data to be organized into Essence-Attribute-Value (EAV). Data management can be accomplished by manipulating entities and their interrelationships.

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